what are the preliminary works in the construction of a building?

what are the preliminary works in the construction of a building?

There are different work and steps of doing work involved before construction work i.e. generally field and paperwork is known as preliminary works. Preliminary works refer to all the activities that are involved in a construction site before the actual work, that work is generally divided into two different phases i.e.
1. Field Work
a. Demolition of a structure
b. Site Clearance
c. Site investigation
2. Paperwork
a. Planning Project
b. Detailed Designing
c. Cost Estimation
In this article, we briefly discuss the entire preliminary works involved in the construction of any building or any project.

Field Work:
That type of work which is directly done in-ground or site of project steps of fieldwork is given below:

a. Demolition
The process of dismantling, destroying, or removal of an existing structure after its life is over or if that structure is damaged due to any reasons, it is dismantling by pre-planned and controlled methods. The demolition is also done before a structure is still life to serve the service. The dismantling process is done with the structure when it creates an obstacle to the new proposed project or when the life of the building is over. The method of demolition involves some steps, mainly: 1. Surveying of existing structure for demolition 2. Removal of hazardous materials from site 3. Method of demolition 4. Safety measures

b. Site Clearance
After dismantling the existing structure we have to clear all unwanted material from the site but in plain land where there is no structure then site clearance is the necessary procedure to remove any obstructing elements such as vegetation found at the site to prepare for excavation. The process of site clearance is generally undertaken as part of starting construction work, carried out to prepare a site for construction. It involves clearing the site to allow other remedial, treatment or demolition works to take place before the actual construction works can begin. The process of site clearance involves the following steps:
Site Clearance
Site Clearance

1. Clearing of bushes
2. Cutting out small trees
3. Removal of topsoil to formation levels.

c. Site Investigation
Site investigation is a systematic process to collect and record all the necessary data which will be needed or will help in the design and construction processes. This is an essential preliminary step of the design and construction of a project as the superstructure of any structure depends upon the substructure. In this investigation, main elements such as the type of soil, soil condition, nature of surrounding buildings, and accessibility can be defined, and this will allow adequate amount and type of resource and cost of construction to be decided. As the stability of the building depends upon the bearing capacity of soil under the loading and pressure of the building, soil tests should be carried out before any construction work.

The importance of carrying out site investigation is –

1. To know the suitability of the proposed project.
2. To know the type of soil and design economic foundation.
3. To know the life of structure occurrence and case of changes in subsoil conditions.

It is done after completion of fieldwork when all nature of the ground environment and nature of work is decided then this work is done which is given below :

a. Planning Project
Planning is the process of selecting a particular method and the order of work to be adopted for a project from all the possible ways and sequences in which it could be done. It primarily covers the aspects of ‘What to do’ and ‘How to do it.’ We’ve broadly outlined what the general goals of construction planning are, but you might be wondering what the purpose of a construction project plan is. At a high level, the purpose of a construction plan is to provide a durable document that will guide a project from idea to completion. By serving as a guidepost and reference point, a strategic plan developed at the beginning of a project will allow project stakeholders to verify that the project is adhering to the originally stated goals as it progresses.

The importance of planning the construction of a structure is as follows:
1. Planning helps to minimize the cost of construction by utilizing available resources.
2. Planning reduces duplication of works and inter-departmental conflicts.
3. Planning encourages innovation and creativity way among the construction managers.
b. Detailed Designing

A detailed design of the project is the complete and precise physical description of all parts of the project structure and how they are fit together, which serves as the basis for the construction phase. It also involves the investigation of the strength, stability, and rigidity of the project to be built, based upon the physical requirements of the building and an understanding of the structural performance, materials, and geometries design used. The detailed design consists of all the required detail of the project for smooth construction i.e. drawings of the project and the structure report to permit reasonably accurate estimates of construction, operating cost, and construction schedule.

c. Cost Estimation
The process of forecasting the reasonable and probable cost of the project is known as an estimation. The cost estimation is done under the fulfillment of the project objectives to the prescribed workmanship covered by specifications for various items of works and to the stipulated schedule. The cost estimation can be carried in different methods by using different tools and techniques of estimation on a project.

The detailed cost estimation of a project comprises of:
1. The direct cost of various items of work
2. Provision for contingencies
3. Direct supervision charges
4. Miscellaneous expenses such as service charges for water supply connection, sanitary arrangements, and electric supply
5. Labor hutments and camps, field office, etc.
6. Provision of Overhead for the contractor
7. Tax of government

After this process, further activities are executed which involves setting out, excavation.

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